In Norse mythology, Heimdallr is a god who possesses the resounding horn Gjallarhorn, owns the golden-maned horse Gulltoppr, is called the shining god and the whitest of the gods, has gold teeth, and is the son of Nine Mothers (who may represent personified waves). Heimdallr is attested as possessing foreknowledge, keen eyesight and hearing, and keeps watch for invaders and the onset of Ragnarök while drinking fine mead in his dwelling Himinbjörg, located where the burning rainbow bridge Bifröst meets the sky. Heimdallr is said to be the originator of social classes among humanity and once regained Freyja's treasured possession Brísingamen while doing battle in the shape of a seal with Loki. Heimdallr and Loki are foretold to kill one another during the events of Ragnarök. Heimdallr is additionally referred to as Rig, Hallinskiði, Gullintanni, and Vindlér or Vindhlér.
Heimdallr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material; in the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, both written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson; in the poetry of skalds; and on an Old Norse runic inscription found in England. Two lines of an otherwise lost poem about the god, Heimdalargaldr, survive. Due to the problematic and enigmatic nature of these attestations, scholars have produced various theories about the nature of the god, including his apparent relation to rams, that he may be a personification of or connected to the world tree Yggdrasil, and potential Indo-European cognates.
Names and etymology
The etymology of the name is obscure, but 'the one who illuminates the world' has been proposed. Heimdallr may be connected to Mardöll, one of Freyja's names. Heimdallr and its variants are sometimes modernly anglicized as Heimdall (//; with the nominative -r dropped).
Heimdallr is attested as having three other names; Hallinskiði, Gullintanni, and Vindlér or Vindhlér. The name Hallinskiði is obscure, but has resulted in a series of attempts at deciphering it. Gullintanni literally means 'the one with the golden teeth'. Vindlér (or Vindhlér) translates as either 'the one protecting against the wind' or 'wind-sea'. All three have resulted in numerous theories about the god.
Saltfleetby spindle whorl inscription
A lead spindle whorl bearing an Old Norse Younger Futhark inscription that mentions Heimdallr was discovered in Saltfleetby, England on September 1, 2010. The spindle whorl itself is dated from the year 1000 to 1100 AD. On the inscription, the god Heimdallr is mentioned alongside the god Odin and Þjálfi, a name of one of the god Thor's servants. Regarding the inscription reading, John Hines of Cardiff University comments that there is "quite an essay to be written over the uncertainties of translation and identification here; what are clear, and very important, are the names of two of the Norse gods on the side, Odin and Heimdallr, while Þjalfi (masculine, not the feminine in -a) is the recorded name of a servant of the god Thor."
Benjamin Thorpe translation:
- For silence I pray all sacred children,
- great and small, sons of Heimdall.
- they will that I Valfather's deeds recount,
- men's ancient saws, those that I best remember.
Henry Adams Bellows translation:
This stanza has led to various scholarly interpretations. The "holy races" have been considered variously as either humanity or the gods. The notion of humanity as "Heimdallr's sons" is otherwise unattested and has also resulted in various interpretations. Some scholars have pointed to the prose introduction to the poem Rígsþula, where Heimdallr is said to have once gone about people, slept between couples, and so doled out classes among them (see Rígsthula section below).
Later in Völuspá, the völva foresees the events of Ragnarök and the role in which Heimdallr and Gjallarhorn will play at its onset; Heimdallr will raise his horn and blow loudly. Due to manuscript differences, translations of the stanza vary:
Benjamin Thorpe translation:
Henry Adams Bellows translation:
Regarding this stanza, scholar Andy Orchard comments that the name Gjallarhorn may here mean "horn of the river Gjöll" as "Gjöll is the name of one of the rivers of the Underworld, whence much wisdom is held to derive", but notes that in the poem Grímnismál Heimdallr is said to drink fine mead in his heavenly home Himinbjörg.
Earlier in the same poem, the völva mentions a scenario involving the hearing or horn (depending on translation of the Old Norse noun hljóð—translations bolded below for the purpose of illustration) of the god Heimdallr:
- Henry Adams Bellows translation:
- I know of the horn of Heimdall, hidden
- Under the high-reaching holy tree;
- On it there pours from Valfather's pledge
- A mighty stream: would you know yet more?
- Carolyne Larrington translation:
- She knows that Heimdall's hearing is hidden
- under the radiant, sacred tree;
- she sees, pouring down, the muddy torrent
- from the wager of Father of the Slain; do you
- understand yet, or what more?
Scholar Paul Schach comments that the stanzas in this section of Völuspá are "all very mysterious and obscure, as it was perhaps meant to be". Schach details that "Heimdallar hljóð has aroused much speculation. Snorri [in the Prose Edda] seems to have confused this word with gjallarhorn, but there is otherwise no attestation of the use of hljóð in the sense of 'horn' in Icelandic. Various scholars have read this as "hearing" rather than "horn".
Scholar Carolyne Larrington comments that if "hearing" rather than "horn" is understood to appear in this stanza, the stanza indicates that Heimdallr, like Odin, has left a body part in the well; his ear. Larrington says that "Odin exchanged one of his eyes for wisdom from Mimir, guardian of the well, while Heimdall seems to have forfeited his ear."
In the poem Grímnismál, Odin (disguised as Grímnir), tortured, starved and thirsty, tells the young Agnar of a number of mythological locations. The eighth location he mentions is Himinbjörg, where he says that Heimdallr drinks fine mead:
Benjamin Thorpe translation:
- Himinbiörg is the eighth, where Heimdall,
- it is said, rules o'er the holy fanes:
- there the gods' watchman, in his tranquil home,
- drinks joyful the good mead.
Henry Adams Bellows translation:
- Himingbjorg is the eighth, and Heimdall there
- O'er men holds sway, it is said;
- In his well-built house does the warder of heaven
- The good mead gladly drink.
Regarding the above stanza, Henry Adams Bellows comments that "in this stanza the two functions of Heimdall—as father of humanity [ . . . ] and as warder of the gods—seem both to be mentioned, but the second line in the manuscripts is apparently in bad shape, and in the editions it is more or less conjecture".
In the poem Lokasenna, Loki flyts with various gods who have met together to feast. At one point during the exchanges, the god Heimdallr says that Loki is drunk and witless, and asks Loki why he won't stop speaking. Loki tells Heimdallr to be silent, that he was fated a "hateful life", that Heimdallr must always have a muddy back, and that he must serve as watchman of the gods. The goddess Skaði interjects and the flyting continues in turn.
The poem Þrymskviða tells of Thor's loss of his hammer, Mjöllnir, to the jötnar and quest to get it back. At one point in the tale, the gods gather at the thing and debate how to get Thor's hammer back from the jötnar, who demand the beautiful goddess Freyja in return for it. Heimdallr advises that they simply dress Thor up as Freyja, during which he is described as hvítastr ása (translations of the phrase vary below) and is said to have foresight like the Vanir, a group of gods:
Benjamin Thorpe translation:
- Then said Heimdall, of Æsir brightest —
- he well foresaw, like other Vanir —
- Let us clothe Thor with bridal raiment,
- let him have the famed Brîsinga necklace.
- "Let by his side keys jingle,
- and woman's weeds fall around his knees,
- but on his breast place precious stones,
- and a neat coif set on his head."
Henry Adams Bellows translation:
- Then Heimdall spake, whitest of the gods,
- Like the Wanes he knew the future well:
- "Bind we on Thor the bridal veil,
- Let him bear the mighty Brisings' necklace;
- "Keys around him let there rattle,
- And down to his knees hang woman's dress;
- With gems full broad upon his breast,
- And a pretty cap to crown his head."
Jeramy Dodds translation:
- The most glittering of gods, Heimdall, who,
- like the Vanir, is gifted with the gift of foresight,
- sad: 'Let's strap a bridal veil over Thor's face
- and let him don the Brising necklace.
- 'Let the wedlock keys jingle around his waist,
- and dress him in a woman's dress to his knees
- and loop giant gems across his chest
- and top him off with a stylish headdress.'
Regarding Heimdallr's status as hvítastr ása (variously translated above as "brightest" (Thorpe), "whitest" (Bellows), and "most glittering" (Dodds)) and the comparison to the Vanir, scholar John Lindow comments that there are no other indications of Heimdallr being considered among the Vanir, and that Heimdallr's status as "hvítastr ása " has not been explained.
The introductory prose to the poem Rígsþula says that "people say in the old stories" that Heimdallr, described as a god among the Æsir, once fared on a journey. Heimdallr wandered along a seashore, and referred to himself as Rígr. In the poem, Rígr, who is described as a wise and powerful god, walks in the middle of roads on his way to steads, where he meets a variety of couples and dines with them, giving them advice and spending three nights at a time between them in their bed. The wives of the couples become pregnant, and from them come the various classes of humanity. Eventually a warrior home produces a promising boy, and as the boy grows older, Rígr comes out of a thicket, teaches the boy runes, gives him a name, and proclaims him to be his son. Rígr tells him to strike out and get land for himself. The boy does so, and so becomes a great war leader with many estates. He marries a beautiful woman and the two have many children and are happy. One of the children eventually becomes so skilled that he is able to share in runic knowledge with Heimdallr, and so earns the title of Rígr himself. The poem continues without further mention of the god.
In the Prose Edda, Heimdallr is mentioned in the books Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál, and Háttatal. In Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High tells the disguised mythical king Gangleri of various gods, and, in chapter 25, mentions Heimdallr. High says that Heimdallr is known as "the white As", is "great and holy", and that nine maidens, all sisters, gave birth to him. Heimdallr is called Hallinskiði and Gullintanni, and he has gold teeth. High continues that Heimdallr lives in "a place" called Himinbjörg and that it is near Bifröst. Heimdallr is the watchman of the gods, and he sits on the edge of heaven to guard the Bifröst bridge from the berg jötnar. Heimdallr requires less sleep than a bird, can see at night just as well as if it were day, and for over a hundred leagues. Heimdallr's hearing is also quite keen; he can hear grass as it grows on the earth, wool as it grows on sheep, and anything louder. Heimdallr possesses a trumpet, Gjallarhorn, that, when blown, can be heard in all worlds, and "the head is referred to as Heimdall's sword". High then quotes the above-mentioned Grímnismál stanza about Himinbjörg and provides two lines from the otherwise lost poem about Heimdallr, Heimdalargaldr, in which Heimdallr proclaims himself to be the son of Nine Mothers.
In chapter 51, High foretells the events of Ragnarök. After the enemies of the gods will gather at the plain Vígríðr, Heimdallr will stand and mightily blow into Gjallarhorn. The gods will awake and assemble together at the thing. At the end of the battle between various gods and their enemies, Heimdallr will face Loki and they will kill one another. After, the world will be engulfed in flames. High then quotes the above-mentioned stanza regarding Heimdallr raising his horn in Völuspá.
At the beginning of Skáldskaparmál, Heimdallr is mentioned as having attended a banquet in Asgard with various other deities. Later in the book, Húsdrápa, a poem by 10th century skald Úlfr Uggason, is cited, during which Heimdallr is described as having ridden to Baldr's funeral pyre.
In chapter 8, means of referring to Heimdallr are provided; "son of nine mothers", "guardian of the gods", "the white As" (see Poetic Edda discussion regarding hvítastr ása above), "Loki's enemy", and "recoverer of Freyja's necklace". The section adds that the poem Heimdalargaldr is about him, and that, since the poem, "the head has been called Heimdall's doom: man's doom is an expression for sword". Hiemdallr is the owner of Gulltoppr, is also known as Vindhlér, and is a son of Odin. Heimdallr visits Vágasker and Singasteinn and there vied with Loki for Brísingamen. According to the chapter, the skald Úlfr Uggason composed a large section of his Húsdrápa about these events and that Húsdrápa says that the two were in the shape of seals. A few chapters later, ways of referring to Loki are provided, including "wrangler with Heimdall and Skadi", and section of Úlfr Uggason's Húsdrápa is then provided in reference:
- Renowned defender [Heimdall] of the powers' way [Bifrost], kind of counsel, competes with Farbauti's terribly sly son at Singastein. Son of eight mothers plus one, might of mood, is first to get hold of the beautiful sea-kidney [jewel, Brisingamen]. I announce it in strands of praise.
The chapter points out that in the above Húsdrápa section Heimdallr is said to be the son of nine mothers.
In Ynglinga saga compiled in Heimskringla, Snorri presents a euhemerized origin of the Norse gods and rulers descending from them. In chapter 5, Snorri asserts that the Æsir settled in what is now Sweden and built various temples. Snorri writes that Odin settled in Lake Logrin "at a place which formerly was called Sigtúnir. There he erected a large temple and made sacrifices according to the custom of the Æsir. He took possession of the land as far as he had called it Sigtúnir. He gave dwelling places to the temple priests." Snorri adds that, after this, Njörðr dwelt in Nóatún, Freyr dwelt in Uppsala, Heimdall at Himinbjörg, Thor at Þrúðvangr, Baldr at Breiðablik and that to everyone Odin gave fine estates.
A figure holding a large horn to his lips and clasping a sword on his hip appears on a stone cross from the Isle of Man. Some scholars have theorized that this figure is a depiction of Heimdallr with Gjallarhorn.
A 9th or 10th century Gosforth Cross in Cumbria, England depicts a figure holding a horn and a sword standing defiantly before two open-mouthed beasts. This figure has been often theorized as depicting Heimdallr with Gjallarhorn.
Theories and interpretations
Heimdallr's attestations have proven troublesome and enigmatic to interpret for scholars. Scholar Georges Dumézil summarizes the difficulties as follows:
- The god Heimdall poses one of the most difficult problems in Scandinavian mythography. As all who have dealt with him have emphasized, this is primarily because of a very fragmentary documentation; but even more because the few traits that have been saved from oblivion diverge in too many directions to be easily "thought of together," or to be grouped as members of a unitary structure.
- Simek (2007:135 and 202).
- "Heimdall". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- Simek (2007:122, 128, and 363).
- Daubney (2010).
- Thorpe (1866:3).
- Bellows (1923:3).
- See discussion at Thorpe (1866:3), Bellows (1923:3), and Larrington (1999:264).
- Thorpe (1866:9).
- Bellows (1923:20). See connected footnote for information on manuscript and editing variations.
- Orchard (1997:57).
- Thorpe (1866:7).
- Bellows (1932:12).
- Larrington (1999:7).
- Schach (1985:93).
- Larrington (1999:265).
- Thorpe (1866:21).
- Bellows (1923:90).
- Larrington (1999:92).
- Thorpe (1866:64).
- Bellows (1923:178).
- Dodds (2014:110).
- Lindow (2002:170).
- Larrington (1999:246—252).
- Faulkes (1995:25-26).
- Faulkes (1995:50). See Faulkes (1995:68) for Úlfr Uggason's Húsdrápa handling this.
- Faulkes (1995:54).
- Faulkes (1995:59).
- Faulkes (1995:68).
- Faulkes (1995:75—77).
- Faulkes (1995:171).
- Hollander (2007:10).
- Lindow (2002:168).
- Bailey (1996:86—90).
- Dumézil (1973:126).
- Bellows, Henry Adams (1923). The Poetic Edda. American-Scandinavian Foundation.
- Cöllen, Sebastian (2015). Heimdallr – der rätselhafte Gott. Eine philologische und religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 94. Berlin & Boston: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-042195-8
- Daubney, A. (2010). LIN-D92A22: Early Medieval Spindle Whorl. Accessed: Jun 9, 2011 10:42:37 AM.
- Dodds, Jeramy. Trans. 2014. The Poetic Edda. Coach House Books. ISBN 978-1-55245-296-7
- Faulkes, Anthony (Trans.) (1995). Edda. Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3
- Bailey, Richard N. (1996). England's Earliest Sculptors. University of Toronto. ISBN 0-88844-905-4.
- Hollander, Lee M. (Trans.) (2007). Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-73061-8
- Larrington, Carolyne (Trans.) (1999). The Poetic Edda. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283946-2
- Dumézil, Georges (1973). Gods of the Ancient Northmen translated by Einar Haugen. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02044-3
- Lindow, John (2002). Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0
- Thorpe, Benjamin (Trans.) (1866) The Elder Edda of Saemund Sigfusson. Norrœna Society.
- Schach, Paul (1985). "Some Thoughts on Völuspá" as collected in Glendinning, R. J. Bessason, Heraldur (Editors). Edda: a Collection of Essays. University of Manitoba Press. ISBN 0-88755-616-7
- Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer ISBN 0-85991-513-1
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